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Anti-Infective Drugs Markets

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Publication Date:
October 2010; Pages: 243
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Anti-Infective Drugs Sample


Six infectious diseases--pneumonia, tuberculosis, diarrheal diseases, malaria, measles and HIV/AIDS--account for half of all premature deaths worldwide, killing mostly children and young adults, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Moreover, threatening pandemics such as swine flu (H1N1 influenza A virus) are adding significant pressure to already strained healthcare budgets of governments around the world. This report analyzes the anti-infective drugs market and highlights the existing and developing anti-infectives used to ameliorate infectious diseases' afflictions on humankind. Anti-infective drugs include: anti-viral therapeutics, antibiotics, anti-fungal agents and prophylactic treatments such as vaccines. Particular attention is paid to the clinical market segment and the pharmaceutical/biotechnology companies involved in anti-infective drugs with specific emphasis on each company's sales focus, product portfolio and R&D pipeline. To date, the most successful anti-infective drugs target the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, the virus that causes AIDS), the herpes virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2), bacterial infections and hepatitis C (HCV). A number of exciting novel anti-viral and antibiotic compounds are currently revolutionizing anti-infective drugs markets, including Truvada and Valtrex, which are anti-HIV and anti-herpes therapies, respectively. Significant resources are also being dedicated toward hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV) and Staph infections, including MRSA. What's more, this study will examine the existing and developing anti-infective drugs targeted at infectious diseases that continue to devastate developing countries, including: cholera, dengue fever, meningitis, rotavirus, typhoid and yellow fever.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Overview 9
1.1 Statement of Report 9
1.2 Scope of the Report 9
1.3 Methodology 10
1.4 Executive Summary 11

2. Clinical Syndromes and Therapy 20
2.1 Head and Neck 22
2.1.1 Sinusitis 22
2.1.2 Pharyngotonsillitis 23
2.1.3 Deep Neck Infections 23
2.1.4 Otitis Media and Externa 23
2.1.5 Acute Suppurative Thyroiditis 23
2.2 Eye 24
2.2.1 Conjunctivitis 24
2.2.2 Keratitis 24
2.2.3 Iritis 24
2.2.4 Retinitis 25
2.2.5 Endophthalmitis 25
2.3 Skin and Lymph Nodes 25
2.3.1 Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections (cSSSIs) 25
2.3.2 Lymphadenitis 25
2.4 Respiratory Tract 26
2.4.1 Bronchitis 26
2.4.2 Laryngitis 26
2.4.3 Pneumonia 26
2.4.4 Influenza 28
2.4.5 Avian Bird Flu 29
2.4.6 Swine Flu 29
2.4.7 Respiratory Syncytial Virus 33
2.4.8 Tuberculosis 33
2.5 Heart and Blood Vessels 37
2.5.1 Endocarditis 37
2.5.2 Acute Pericarditis 37
2.5.3 Myocarditis 37
2.5.4 Vascular Infections 38
2.6 Gastrointestinal Tract, Liver and Abdomen 38
2.6.1 Acute Viral Hepatitis 38
2.6.2 Chronic Hepatitis 39
2.6.3 Biliary Tract Infections 40
2.6.4 Pancreatitis 40
2.6.5 Esophageal Infections 41
2.6.6 Gastroenteritis 41
2.6.7 Peritonitis 42
2.7 Genitourinary Tract 43
2.7.1 Urethritis 43
2.7.2 Prostatitis 43
2.7.3 Urinary Tract Infections 44
2.7.4 Pelvic Inflammatory Disease 44
2.7.5 Candiduria 44
2.7.6 Human Papilloma Virus 44
2.8 Nervous System 45
2.8.1 Bacterial Meningitis 45
2.8.2 Viral Encephalitis 46
2.8.3 Reye's Syndrome 46
2.8.4 Myelitis and Peripheral Neuropathy 46
2.9 Musculoskeletal System 46
2.9.1 Osteomyelitis 46
2.9.2 Polyarthritis 47
2.9.3 Bursitis 47
2.9.4 Psoas Abscess 47
2.10 HIV Infection 47
2.11 Blood-Borne Infections 53
2.11.1 Malaria 53
2.11.2 West Nile Virus 56

3. Anti-Infective Drugs Market 58
3.1 FDA Approvals of New Anti-Infective Therapy 60
3.2 Anti-Infective Drugs in Current Pharmaceutical Developmental Programs 68
3.3 Factors Determining Anti-Infective Drug Development 70
3.4 Pharmaceutical R&D Expenditures 71

4. Description of Anti-Infective Therapeutic Agents 73
4.1 Anti-Bacterials 73
4.1.1 Anti-Bacterial Therapeutic Agents in Current Formulation 76
4.1.1.1 B-Lactam Antibiotics 77
4.1.1.2 Fluoroquinones 78
4.1.1.3 Glycopeptides 79
4.1.1.4 Macrolides 80
4.1.1.5 Oxazolidinones 81
4.1.1.6 Other Classes of Anti-Bacterial Agents 82
4.1.2 Older Classes of Antibiotics 82
4.2 Anti-Virals 83
4.2.1 Overview 83
4.2.2 Anti-Viral Therapy 83
4.2.3 Anti-Viral Market Leaders 84
4.2.4 Principles of Anti-Viral Therapy 84
4.3 Anti-Fungals 90
4.3.1 Overview 90
4.3.2 Major Classes of Anti-Fungal Therapy 90
4.3.3 Anti-Fungal Agent Resistance 91
4.3.4 Anti-Fungal Agent Market Leaders 92
4.4 Vaccines 92
4.4.1 Overview 92
4.4.2 Principles of Vaccine Therapy 95
4.4.3 Vaccine Market Leaders 95

5. Market for Anti-Infective Drugs and Vaccines 99
5.1 Molecular Diagnostics in Determining Demand 99

6. Decision-Making Activity in the Anti-Infective Drugs Market 103
6.1 Net Present Value in Making Decisions to Develop and Market Antibiotics 104

7. Economics of Anti-Microbial Drug Resistance: the Persistent Need for Anti-Bacterials 106
7.1 Resistance and Antibiotic Usage 109

8. Global Market Analysis of Anti-Infective Drugs 111
8.1 Market Size 111
8.2 Market Share 111
8.3 Market Drivers 113

9. Global Market for Anti-Bacterial Therapies 114
9.1 Amoxicillin 116
9.2 Nafcillin 117
9.3 Ticarcillin 117
9.4 Imipenem 117
9.5 Ceftriaxone 117
9.6 Cefotetan 118
9.7 Dalbavancin 118
9.8 Doripenem 119

10. Global Market for Anti-Fungal Therapies 120
10.1 Amphotericin B 121
10.2 Azoles 121
10.3 Echinocandins 122
10.4 Flucytosine 122

11. Global Market for Anti-Viral Therapies 123
11.1 Antiretroviral Market 123
11.1.1 The Viral Drug Resistance Crisis 123
11.1.2 Emtricitabine 126
11.1.3 CCR5 Receptor Antagonists 127
11.1.4 Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs) 127
11.2 HCV Infections 128
11.2.1 Pegintron Alpha 128
11.2.2 Ribavirin 129
11.2.3 Boceprevir 129
11.3 Acyclovir 129
11.4 Adefovir 129
11.5 Cidofovir 130
11.6 Entecavir 130
11.7 Fomivirsen 130
11.8 Foscarnet 130
11.9 Ganciclovir 130

12. Market, Demographic and Economic Trends 131
12.1 Emerging Trends in Infectious Diseases Worldwide 131
12.2 Global Burden of Infectious Diseases 132
12.3 The AIDS Model 133
12.4 Dead-End Transmission of Zoonotic and Vector-Borne Diseases 133
12.5 Environmentally-Persistent Organisms 134
12.6 Old Microbes and New Diseases 134
12.7 Microbial Agents and Chronic Diseases 134
12.8 Remerging and Resurging Infections 135
12.9 Geographical Spread of Infectious Diseases 135
12.10 Drug-Resistant Microbes 136
12.11 Opportunistic Re-Emerging Infections 136
12.12 Re-Emerging Zoonotic and Vector-Borne Diseases 136
12.13 Influenza 136
12.14 Deliberately-Emerging Infections 137
12.15 Meeting the Challenge of Emerging Diseases 137

13. Political and Legal Trends 138
13.1 AATF and Legislation 138
13.2 Bioterrorism and Biowarfare 140

14. Technological Trends 141
14.1 Anti-Microbial Discovery in the Post-Genomic Era 141
14.1.1 Anti-Bacterial Polypharmacology 141
14.1.2 Topology of Targets 142
14.1.3 Designer Polypharmacology and Designing HIV Therapies 142

15. Socio-Cultural Trends 143

16. Competitive Landscape 144
16.1 Introduction 144
16.2 Strengths and Weaknesses in Anti-Microbial Drug Discovery-Commercial 145
16.3 Strengths and Weaknesses in Anti-Microbial Drug Discovery-Academic 146
16.4 Regulatory Hurdles 146
16.5 Business Hurdles 147
16.6 Strategic Alliances, Licensing Activity, and Mergers and Acquisitions 148

17. Sales Performance: a Detailed Analysis of Leading Anti-Infective Players 151
17.1 GlaxoSmithKline 151
17.1.1 Overview 151
17.1.2 Sales Focus by Drug Class 151
17.1.3 Marketed Product Portfolio 152
17.1.4 R&D Pipeline Analysis 154
17.1.5 Strategic and Growth Analysis 154
17.2 Merck 155
17.2.1 Overview 155
17.2.2 Sales Focus by Drug Class 156
17.2.3 Marketed Product Portfolio 156
17.2.4 R&D Pipeline Analysis 158
17.2.5 Strategic and Growth Analysis 159
17.3 Pfizer 159
17.3.1 Overview 159
17.3.2 Sales Focus by Drug Class 160
17.3.3 Marketed Product Portfolio 160
17.3.4 R&D Pipeline Analysis 162
17.3.5 Strategic and Growth Analysis 163
17.4 Novartis AG 163
17.4.1 Overview 163
17.4.2 Sales Focus by Drug Class 163
17.4.3 Marketed Product Portfolio 164
17.4.4 R&D Pipeline Analysis 165
17.4.5 Strategic and Growth Analysis 165
17.5 Gilead Sciences 166
17.5.1 Overview 166
17.5.2 Sales Focus by Drug Class 166
17.5.3 Marketed Product Portfolio 167
17.5.4 R&D Pipeline Analysis 167
17.5.5 Strategic and Growth Analysis 168
17.6 Abbott 168
17.6.1 Overview 168
17.6.2 Sales Focus by Drug Class 168
17.6.3 Marketed Product Portfolio 169
17.6.4 R&D Pipeline Analysis 169
17.6.5 Strategic and Growth Analysis 170
17.7 Wyeth (Acquired by Pfizer) 170
17.7.1 Overview 170
17.7.2 Sales Focus by Drug Class 170
17.7.3 Marketed Product Portfolio 171
17.7.4 R&D Pipeline Analysis 171
17.7.5 Strategic and Growth Analysis 172
17.8 Sanofi-Aventis 172
17.8.1 Overview 172
17.8.2 Sales Focus by Drug Class 172
17.8.3 Marketed Product Portfolio 173
17.8.4 R&D Pipeline Analysis 174
17.8.5 Strategic and Growth Analysis 174
17.9 Bristol-Myers Squibb 175
17.9.1 Overview 175
17.9.2 Sales Focus by Drug Class 175
17.9.3 Marketed Product Portfolio 175
17.9.4 R&D Pipeline Analysis 175
17.9.5 Strategic and Growth Analysis 176
17.10 Johnson & Johnson (J&J) 176
17.10.1 Overview 176
17.10.2 Sales Focus by Drug Class 177
17.10.3 Marketed Product Portfolio 177
17.10.4 R&D Pipeline Analysis 177
17.10.5 Strategic and Growth Analysis 178
17.11 Roche Pharma AG 178
17.11.1 Overview 178
17.11.2 Sales Focus by Drug Class 179
17.11.3 Marketed Product Portfolio 179
17.11.4 R&D Pipeline Analysis 179
17.11.5 Strategic and Growth Analysis 179

18. Company Profiles 181
18.1 Abraxis BioScience, Inc. 181
18.2 Acambis (Now Sanofi Pasteur) 181
18.3 Achillion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 181
18.4 Adlyfe, Inc. 182
18.5 Advanced Life Sciences Holdings, Inc. 183
18.6 Affinium Pharmaceuticals 183
18.7 Akonni Biosystems 183
18.8 Alnylam Pharmaceuticals 183
18.9 APP Pharmaceuticals 184
18.10 Aquapharm Biodiscovery 184
18.11 Arbor Vita Corporation 184
18.12 Arpida Ltd. (Now Evolva) 185
18.13 Avexa Ltd. 185
18.14 Basilea Pharmaceutica AG 185
18.15 Baxter International, Inc. 185
18.16 Biophage Pharma, Inc. 186
18.17 CEL-SCI Corporation 186
18.18 Cerexa, Inc. (a Subsidiary of Forest Laboratories) 187
18.19 CombiMatrix Corporation 187
18.20 Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 187
18.21 Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd. 188
18.22 Hospira, Inc. 188
18.23 Incyte Corporation 189
18.24 Idenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 189
18.25 Medivir AB 190
18.26 Meiji Holdings Co., Ltd. 190
18.27 MerLion Pharma 191
18.28 Mutabilis 191
18.29 NanoBio Corporation 191
18.30 Nanosphere, Inc. 192
18.31 NanoViricides, Inc. 192
18.32 Novabay Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 192
18.33 Obetech, LLC 193
18.34 Optimer Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 193
18.35 Panacos Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 194
18.36 Paratek Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 194
18.37 Pharmasset, Inc. 194
18.38 Pico Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 195
18.39 PolyMedix, Inc. 195
18.40 PowderMed Ltd. (Subsidiary of Pfizer) 195
18.41 Presidio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 196
18.42 Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 196
18.43 Protez Pharmaceuticals (a Novartis Subsidiary) 196
18.44 Ribomed Biotechnologies, Inc. 197
18.45 Rib-X Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 197
18.46 Targanta Therapeutics Corporation, Inc. (Acquired by The Medicine Company) 197
18.47 Theravance, Inc. 198
18.48 Trius Therapeutics 198
18.49 Vertex Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 198
18.50 X-GEN Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 199

Appendix 1: FDA Compliance Policies Regarding Approved New Drug and Antibiotic Drug Products 200
Appendix 2: Anti-HCV Drugs in Development 202
Appendix 3: Market for Anti-Infectives in Animal Health 205
Appendix 4: Diagnostics for Infectious Agents 211


INDEX OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: Leading Causes of Death in the U.S., 1961-2007 12
Figure 1.2: Global Distribution of Anti-Infective Drug Sales by Geography 15
Figure 2.1: Incidence Rates of Invasive MRSA Infections by Age 20
Figure 2.2: U.S. Child Death Rate from Preventable Diseases, 2007 22
Figure 2.3: Infection Rate of Serotype 19A by Age Group in the U.S., 1998-2006 27
Figure 2.4: U.S. Hospitalizations for Types of Respiratory Diseases in Children Under 15 Years of Age 27
Figure 2.5: Economic Burden of Select Lung Diseases in the U.S., 2007 28
Figure 2.6: Infection Rate of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in the U.S., 1998-2007 28
Figure 2.7: Status of H5N1 Avian Influenza, 2009 29
Figure 2.8: Number of Reported and Confirmed Cases of Influenza H1N1 Strain Worldwide, 2009 31
Figure 2.9: Distribution of H1N1 Flu in the U.S., May 22, 2010 32
Figure 2.10: Novel H1N1 Confirmed and Probable Case Rate in the U.S. by Age Group 32
Figure 2.11: Number of Tuberculosis Cases Among U.S.-Born and Foreign-Born Persons by Year Reported in the U.S., 1993-2009 34
Figure 2.12: Rate of Tuberculosis Cases Among U.S.-Born and Foreign-Born Persons by Year Reported in the U.S., 1993-2009 34
Figure 2.13: Rate of Tuberculosis Cases by State/Area in the U.S., 2009 35
Figure 2.14: U.S.-Born Tuberculosis Cases by Ethnicity, 2008 36
Figure 2.15: Rate of New Hepatitis A, B and C Infections in the U.S., 1982-2007 39
Figure 2.16: Countries Reporting Outbreaks of Cholera, 2007-2009 42
Figure 2.17: U.S. Rates of Sexually-Transmitted Diseases, 1940-2008 43
Figure 2.18: Rate of New Cases and Deaths of Cervical Cancer by Age Group Worldwide, 2008 45
Figure 2.19: Global Trend of HIV Infection, 1991-2008 48
Figure 2.20: Worldwide Percentage of Adults Living with HIV, 1990-2006 48
Figure 2.21: Worldwide Rate of New HIV Cases, 1990-2008 49
Figure 2.22: Percentage of Adult Population in African Countries with HIV, 2007 49
Figure 2.23: Ethnic Distribution of AIDS Patients in the U.S., 2007 51
Figure 2.24: Ten Best-Selling AIDS Drugs in the U.S., 2009 51
Figure 2.25: U.S. Rates for New HIV Cases, 2008 52
Figure 2.26: Global Malaria-Endemic Areas in the Eastern Hemisphere 54
Figure 2.27: Anti-Malarial Vaccine Pipeline, 2009 55
Figure 2.28: Global Anti-Malarial Drug Pipeline, 2008 56
Figure 2.29: West Nile Virus Activity in the U.S., 2009 57
Figure 3.1: Anti-Infective Drugs Market Projections, 2006-2013 58
Figure 3.2: Leading Companies in Anti-Infectives Market Share, 2008 59
Figure 3.3: Number of New Anti-Bacterial Agents Approved by the FDA in the U.S., 1983-2008 62
Figure 3.4: Total Spending on Healthcare in the U.S., 1960-2008 64
Figure 3.5: Percentage Breakdown of U.S. Healthcare Spending, 2008 65
Figure 3.6: International Per Capita Healthcare Spending by Country, 2008 65
Figure 3.7: Generic Drug Applications and Approvals in the U.S., 1995-2006 66
Figure 3.8: Savings Generated by Generic Use in the U.S. by Therapeutic Category, 1999-2008 67
Figure 3.9: Anti-Bacterial and Anti-HIV New Molecular Entities (NMEs) Approved by the FDA, 1993-2007 71
Figure 3.10: Cost for New Drugs by Primary Indication, 2007 72
Figure 4.1: Market Share by Leading Anti-Bacterial Drug Class 74
Figure 4.2: Anti-Virals in the Marketplace 83
Figure 4.3: Anti-Virals Market by Indication, Excluding HIV and HCV 84
Figure 4.4: Anti-Viral Therapeutics Market by Drug Class 85
Figure 4.5: Global Distribution of the Lack of Childhood Vaccination 93
Figure 4.6: GAVI Alliance Members 95
Figure 4.7: Global Vaccines Market, 2008 96
Figure 4.8: GlaxoSmithKline's Vaccine Pipeline, 2008 96
Figure 4.9: Vaccine Market by Geographical Area, 2008 97
Figure 5.1: Global Market for Molecular Diagnostics, 2002-2013 100
Figure 6.1: Number of Non-Elderly Americans without Health Insurance Coverage, 1994-2008 104
Figure 6.2: Percentage of Non-Elderly Americans without Health Insurance Coverage, 1994-2008 104
Figure 7.1: Global Multidrug Susceptibility in P. Aeruginosa 108
Figure 7.2: Global Frequency of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci, 2006 108
Figure 7.3: MRSA Trends According to Patient Location, 1998-2005 109
Figure 9.1: Market for Injectable Anti-Bacterials, 2008 and 2013 115
Figure 9.2: Market Share for Major Anti-Bacterial Classes, 2008 and 2013 116
Figure 9.3: Frequency of S. Aureus in Skin and Soft Tissue Infections 119
Figure 11.1: Current and Projected Market Size for Injectable Antiretrovirals by Drug Class, 2008 and 2013 123
Figure 11.2: Market Share for Injectable Antiretrovirals by Drug Class, 2008 124
Figure 11.3: HCV Market: Growth and Projections by Drug Class, 2008 and 2013 128
Figure A3.1: Growth in Global Sales of Antibiotic Products in Animal Health, 2005-2012 205
Figure A4.1: FIND Pipeline for TB Diagnostics 222


INDEX OF TABLES

Table 1.1: Top Ten Causes of Death Worldwide 12
Table 1.2: Leading Pharmaceutical Companies in the Anti-Infective Market, 2009 16
Table 2.1: Annual Rates of Global Infectious Diseases 21
Table 2.2: Drugs in Development for Chronic Hepatitis B, 2010 40
Table 2.3: Global HIV Statistics, 2008 50
Table 3.1: Top-Selling Anti-Infective Drugs, 2008 59
Table 3.2: Sales for Leading Companies' Infectious Diseases Segments, 2008 60
Table 3.3: Current Drug Development Times and Rates by Therapeutic Indication 61
Table 3.4: Emerging Therapeutic Approaches 61
Table 3.5: New Drug Approvals in All Categories from the FDA, 2000-2009 62
Table 3.6: Top Ten Global Pharmaceutical Markets, 2008 63
Table 3.7: Percentage of GDP Healthcare Spending in BRIC Countries, 2008 63
Table 3.8: Percentage of GDP Healthcare Spending by Country, 2008 64
Table 3.9: Top 20 Generic Drugs by Prescriptions, 2008 67
Table 3.10: Anti-Bacterial Agents Undergoing Clinical Development 68
Table 3.11 Leading Tuberculosis R&D Candidates 69
Table 3.12: Pipeline for Repositioned Drugs 70
Table 4.1: Potential Anti-Bacterial Protein Drug Targets 75
Table 4.2: In Vitro Susceptibility of Staphylococci to New Agents in Development 75
Table 4.3: Anti-Staphylococcal Vaccines and Immunoglobulins in the Late-Stage Pipeline, 2009 76
Table 4.4: Bacterial Targets of Antibiotics and Resistance Mechanisms 76
Table 4.5: Guideline Summary for Antibiotic Selection for Skin and Soft Tissue Infections 77
Table 4.6: Selected Anti-Viral Drugs 85
Table 4.7: Antireterovirals in Development, 2008 85
Table 4.8: New Types of HIV Drugs 86
Table 4.9: Recommended Daily Dosage of Seasonal Influenza Anti-Viral Medications for Treatment and Chemoprophylaxis in the U.S., 2008-2009 87
Table 4.10: Percentage of Population Drug Resistance for Common Influenza Virus Strains, 2009 88
Table 4.11: Selected HCV Drugs in Development, 2009 89
Table 4.12: Therapeutic Agents in Development for Treating Hepatitis B, 2008 90
Table 4.13: Anti-Fungal Compounds in Late-Stage Development 91
Table 4.14: New Vaccines Licensed, 2005-2010 94
Table 4.15: Global Top-Selling Vaccines, 2008 97
Table 4.16: Selected Anti-Infective Monoclonal Antibodies in Clinical Development, 2009 98
Table 5.1: FDA-Approved Commercial Kits for the Detection of Infectious Agents 100
Table 5.2: Examples of Personalized Medicine in the Treatment of Infectious Disease 101
Table 6.1: Competitive Landscape for Anti-Viral Drugs in Development, 2009 105
Table 6.2: Competitive Landscape for Antibiotic Drugs in Development, 2009 105
Table 8.1 Anti-HIV Therapeutics Approved by the FDA 112
Table 9.1: Major Classes of Antibiotics 114
Table 10.1: Major Classes of Anti-Fungals 120
Table 11.1: CCR-5 Receptor Agonists in Development, 2009 127
Table 12.1: Major Pathogens Identified in the Last 30 Years 132
Table 12.2: Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases and Their Geographical Location 135
Table 16.1: Pharmaceutical Companies Ranked by Total R&D Expenditures, 2008 145
Table 16.2: International Regulatory Measures Indicated by the International Forum of Anti-Bacterial Resistance 147
Table A2.1: Anti-HCV Pipeline, 2009 202
Table A3.1: European Sales of Animal Health Antibiotics, 2005-2012 206
Table A3.2: Use of Antibiotics as Growth Promotants 208
Table A4.1: Market Structure for Infectious Disease Diagnostics 212
Table A4.2: Rapid Strep Tests on the Market 212
Table A4.3: Rapid Tests for Chlamydia 215
Table A4.4: Rapid Tests for Gonorrhea 217
Table A4.5: Burden of Influenza 218
Table A4.6: Global Market Potential for TB Diagnostic Testing, 2000-2010 223
Table A4.7: Global Market for HBV Diagnostic Testing, 2000-2012 226
Table A4.8: U.S. Market for HBV Diagnostic Testing, 2000-2012 226
Table A4.9: Serological Diagnosis of Hepatitis B Virus Infections 228
Table A4.10: Lower Detection Limits of HBV DNA Assays 229
Table A4.11: Type of Test: Lateral Flow 233
Table A4.12: Type of Test: Flow-Through 234
Table A4.13: Type of Test: Agglutination 234
Table A4.14: Type of Test: Immunoblot 234
Table A4.15: Global Market for HCV Diagnostic Testing, 2000-2009 237
Table A4.16: Efficiency of Available HCV Screening Tests 238
Table A4.17: Recommendations for Diagnostic Testing for Hepatitis C 239

 

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